Lima Elemen Humor dalam Ayurveda

Ayurveda merupakan sistem perubatan India yang telah diturunkan dari kitab suci Veda dan telah dikembangkan sejak 2000 tahun sebelum Masihi. Dalam bahasa Sanskrit, sistem ini dikenali sebagai Pancha Maha Bhuta (Pancha bermaksud Lima, Maha pula bermaksud besar, dan Bhuta bererti Elemen). (Kimmana Nichols, 2014) Ayurveda mempercayai bahawa lima elemen ini adalah Ether, Udara, Api, Air dan Bumi yang membentuk alam semesta serta tubuh badan manusia. (Aleysius H. Gondosari, 2009) Sistem lima elemen Ayurveda ini hanya sederhana dengan mempraktikkan keseimbangan dalam aspek kehidupan. Kelemahan dan kekuatan dlam diri dapat dikenalpasti melalui sistem ini dapat membantu menyeimbangkan diet serta gaya hidup. (Kimmana Nichols, 2014)

Lima sistem ini membentuk dasar-dasar kehidupan dan membuat perbandingan terhadap alam semesta. Sistem lima elemen Ayurveda ini menekankan keseimbangan pada tiga Doshas iaitu Vata (angin, semangat dan udara), patta (hempedu) and kapha (cecair dari badan). Kaedah rawatan biasanya melalui yoga, meditasi dan juga urutan badan. Hal ini dapat membantu dalam menjaga etika, kegiatan harian termasuk aktiviti seksual, penjagaan diet seimbang serta kebersihan diri. Perubatan Ayurveda menggunakan tumbuh-tumbuhan sebagai sumber ubat-ubatan.

Ether atau “akasha” dalam Bahasa Sanskrit, adalah elemen utama daripada lima elemen humor Ayurveda. Hal ini kerana ether merupakan yang paling halus, meliputi keseluruhan ruang di alam semesta. Ini disebabkan semua material di alam semesta mengandungi ether malah berkemungkinan setiap modifikasi material berasal daripada ether. Ether sering dirujuk sebagai “ruang” yang merupakan asas kepada kekosongan. Ether berasal daripada shabda iaitu mantra dalam bentuk bunyi. Bunyi mewakili seluruh spektrum getaran. Ether membantu memenuhi ruangan kehidupan dalam aspek fizikal dan emosi. (Dr. Marc Halpern, 1995)

Elemen yang seterusnya yang datangnya daripada ether merupakan udara, juga dikenali sebagai “vayu”. Elemen ini berprinsipkan pergerakan atau mewakili tenaga kinetik yang mewakili semua daya serta gerakan terbentuk daripada kuasa-kuasa. Elemen udara adalah titik awal di mana elemen mulai memiliki arah dan tujuan iaitu idea untuk bergerak dari satu arah ke suatu arah. Asal usul udara adalah daripada sparsha yang berkait rapat dengan sentuhan yang mana udara dan sentuhan tidak dapat dipisahkan. Udara bercirikan mudah mengalir, sejuk, ringan, kering, kasar, halus, tajam, jelas dan keras. Walaupun udara halus namun dapat dirasai melalui sentuhan. Dalam tubuh badan, udara adalah asas bagi semua tindak balas pemindahan tenaga. Udara amat penting untuk kestabilan diri sejurus mengawal pengaliran darah, pernafasan serta sistem saraf. Elemen ini juga membantu dalam menggerakkan tubuh badan.

Elemen yang ketiga merupakan api atau “agni” yang berprinsipkan transformasi dan metabolisme. Api berkuasa untuk mengubah sesuatu pepejal kepada cecair atau gas dan kembali semula ke bentuk asal. Dalam erti kata lain, api mempunyai kuasa untuk mengubah keadaan sesuatu bahan. Elemen api mewakili kapisiti haba dan cahaya. Api adalah penjana tenaga dalam badan seperti matahari yang merupakan penjana tenaga kepada bumi. Tenaga suria juga merupakan sumber kepada api. Proses pembakaran akan berlaku dengan membebaskan tenaga dari sumbernya. Api wujud dalam bentuk cahaya, haba panas, kering, kasar, halus, mengalir, tajam, jelas serta lembut. Udara membantu api dalam proses pembakaran. Dalam tubuh badan manusia, elemen api membantu dalam proses penghadaman makanan, meningkatkan metabolisme, menyihatkan kulit serta membakar lemak.

Selain itu, air atau “jala” berprinsipkan transportasi. Air merupakan pelarut universal kerana kemampuannya untuk melarutkan sesuatu bahan. Air adalah pelindung tubuh badan sebagai khasiat yang paling asas. Elemen air ini sejuk, stabil, berat, lembab, licin, kasar, mengalir dan lembut. Air amat penting dalam proses penghidratan tubuh badan, menstabilkan suhu badan serta mengekalkan kelembapan kulit. Semua kehidupan di bumi amat memerlukan air untuk hidup. Sebahagian besar tubuh badan manusia diperbuat daripada air termasuklah darah, limfa dan cecair-cecair lain.

Elemen yang terakhir ialah bumi atau “prithvi” dalam bahasa Sanskrit. Unsur bumi merupakan perkara yang kukuh dan struktur alam semesta. Bumi memberi bentuk tubuh badan manusia dan semua ciptaan. Semua unsur-unsur yang lahir daripada ether terkandung di dalam bumi. Dalam tubuh badan manusia, bahagian-bahagian seperti tulang, gigi, sel-sel dan tisu-tisu adalah manifestasi daripada bumi. Jadi, bumi merupakan elemen yang paling stabil. Bumi bercirikan padat, keras dan kasar.

Secara keseluruhannya,Ayurveda berfungsi berdasarkan petua daripada pelbagai bahan yang terkandung dalam sayur-sayuran, dan zat-zat mineral yang mempunyai khasiat perubatan yang tertentu. Khasiat perubatan dalam bahan-bahan tersebut di dokumentasikan oleh pengamal dan telah digunakan untuk mengubat penyakit dalam tubuh badan. Perubatan Ayurveda dihasilkan daripada ramuan herba dengan sendiri atau mengunakan kombinasi mineral lain untuk tujuan perubatan.

Kini, Ayurveda mula mendapat sambutan di negara barat namun kebanyakkan kajian mengenai Ayurveda dilakukan di India. Kajian menunjukkan perubatan ini berkesan dalam merawat banyak penyakit termasuk ketidakhadaman, masalah kulit dan ginekologi. Teknik Ayurveda dikatakan berkesan dalam membantu masalah sengau, sistem penghadaman yang lembap dan tekanan. Rawatan akan ditujukan untuk mengembalikan keharmonian ataupun keseimbangan kepada sistem badan dan minda.

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Why Disabled Children Need to Go to School?

Disability of children means a child that considered as a disabled person in which he or she has a medical determinable physical or mental impairment that results in marked and severe functional limitations. World has reported that one billion people in the world are facing and living with disability with at least one out of ten of them are children. Disability affects hundreds of millions of families in especially in developing countries. Children with disabilities are said to be experienced inequalities in their daily lives and have fewer opportunities to access a quality education unlike children that are normal. There are several types of disabilities in a child such as autism, deafness, intellectual disability, blindness, mental illness, speech-language disorders, physical disability and many more.

Children with disabilities are normally has difficulties in learning in one or more areas of the curriculum. These difficulties may vary in nature, cause, intensity and time. These children have diverse abilities and learning needs. They have been diagnosed with learning disabilities struggle so much during schools in order to achieve their dreams of who they want to be someday; as all of us do the same. Three common classes or school that usually can be applied by these disabled students are regular classes, support classes and special schools. With these learning disabilities, they might have better guaranteed future.

Majority of disabled children have been educated in special schools for over the century, excluded from their non-disabled peers. It is only in the last 30 years that this has started to change as more disabled children have been increasingly been given the right to a mainstream education as this form of apartheid is slowly exposed and removed. How can disabled children pursue their studies? Does school meant to them? Why don’t they just stay at home instead of going to school? There are a lot of questions to be answered but I would like to focus to only one of hundreds which is “Why disabled children need to go to school?”

From the articles that I have taken in some journals, the first point is children with disabilities could learn on how to manage their behaviour from school. Disabled children especially will learn well from having behaviour modelled. The teachers in school will help them to improve their actions, reactions and responses towards a thing or situation; oriented in helping the child to develop positive self-management skills. This is because they are not capable in noticing the good and the bad without being taught. They will learn on how to be more discipline from specialists or teachers. Here in school, common characteristics of children with disabilities in various categories are described. Early learning disabilities should be proposed to them in young age.

Do you want to see them hovering at the streets as a beggar? No, absolutely. Disabled children have their own rights to study. In other words, they have reasonable intelligence and adequate opportunity to learn as well as normal people. We cannot judge and prevent them to continue their studies just because they have lack of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). From school learning, they are able to get the chance to achieve the level of academic competence even with low achievement.

There are 13 categories represent the disabled children who are entitled to special education under the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) mainly specific learning disability, speech or language impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities, hearing impairment, deafness, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, visual impairment or blindness, autism, traumatic brain injury and deaf-blindness. The third reason is they will have opportunity to develop their disabilities. For instance, children with speech disorder may have speech therapy in their school in which leads to improvement in functional communication skills. Besides, children that are blind can practice themselves using Braille system thus can express themselves in writing.

The next, school is important in helping disabled children to build their self-esteem and encourage them to be more independent. They can create new relationship with other students as friends when working in a task as a team or group given by the teachers in school. From this, they can receive assistance on challenging material. This may benefit them to create and to raise-up their confidence level in order to face the real lifestyle.

Moreover, attending school not only to focus during their young but also when the getting older. School helps them to gain knowledge to get employed and job. Disabled children which graduated from school and pursue their studies will have chance to hold jobs and live on their own. Children with disabilities have greater probability of taking their place within a community work force if they had comprehensive vocational training during the school years. Work is important not only for financial incentives but also personal identity, status and contribution to the community.

Other than that, in school, they can be trained to implement structured behaviour modification programs to help a student gain skills of self-control. Basic skills such as reading with fluency need to learn by them as highly structured early intervention is effective at increasing most students’ ability to decode individual words rapidly and fluently. Schools also can facilitate the disabled children success in adult life. Schools are most effective in preparing children with disabilities for life as adults when there is an emphasis on the development of skills necessary to function in actual community settings, or the children participate in appropriate postsecondary programs. Lastly, disabled children go to school to obtain proficiency regarding academic skills.

Students with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group, varying by type and severity of disability, as well as by the many variables found in the population at large, such as income, family characteristics, temperament, and intelligence. This heterogeneity means that some students have highly specialized educational needs, such as sign language interpretation or occupational therapy. However, it is possible to make some generalizations about the most common characteristics and needs of students with disabilities as a group. There is no doubt that the needs of students with learning disabilities, including academic needs, can be met with inclusive practices. However, the skills required to implement such practices likely take time to develop. In addition, students with learning disabilities often benefit from direct skill instruction in individualized or small group settings. In conclusion, there are many reasons of disabled children to go to school.